RegTech has become a primary focal point for those operating within financial services. Given the number of financial activities under regulatory review, the process of ensuring compliance can be time intensive and costly. RegTech dramatically lowers compliance costs and spans investing, trading, lending, banking, insurance, wealth management, portfolio management and many other areas. Some market analysts estimate that the size of the Global RegTech market will reach $55 billion by 2025. Given its importance within the overall financial technology space, we decided to undertake a deep dive into the companies and executives playing key roles in the development of the RegTech market.
We are pleased to announce The Top 25 RegTech Executives of 2020. Selection to the list was based on a thorough review of each individual's track record and demonstrated expertise in RegTech. We also factored in company caliber and milestones achieved as well as each individual's historical and current career accomplishments.
1. Vijay Kedia, CEO of Flextrade
Vijay Kedia has been the chief executive officer of FlexTrade Systems since he founded the company in 1996. Since then, the industry pioneer and global leader in cross-asset execution and order management systems has gone from strength to strength. Beginning as a startup FlexTrade is now a renowned Fintech company serving the world's most dynamic and innovative financial institutions. A pioneer in the field, FlexTrade introduced the first trading system that allowed clients to control and customize their proprietary algorithms while maintaining the confidentiality of their trading strategies. Over 20 years, the provider of multi-asset-class order and execution management systems and transaction cost analysis has grown since 1996 to 450 employees, serving more than 200 clients in 45 countries.
At the head of all of this is Kedia, who brings extensive knowledge from his time working at Bear Stearns & Co. Equally important was his experience at Fonar Corporation, the company that invented the MRI. There his exposure to real-time scientific computing advances would allow Kedia to think in these terms once he arrived at FlexTrade. He's a graduate from BITS, Pilani, with a Bachelors's degree in Electrical Engineering.
2. Tim Estes, CEO of Digital Reasoning
Tim Estes is the president and co-founder of Digital Reasoning and has been with the company since its inception. Along with Dorothy Currey, he envisioned a new way that computers could learn and understand language. In 2000 they brought this idea to life. Leading the way through innovations in cognitive computing, Digital Reasoning primarily serves the defense, intelligence, financial, enterprise risk, and health care markets with solutions.
As he's guided the company, refining its offerings and expanding its position in the analytics market, Estes has also considered how his company can achieve social good. Armed with a new vision to democratize the technology that can automate understanding of data, he looks to significantly improve people's lives in a world of ever-increasing information across government, healthcare, and academia.
A graduate of the University of Virginia, he studied philosophy of language and mathematics. Since its founding, Digital Reasoning has raised $104 million in funding, and Estes has subsequently been dubbed "Wall Street's Robocop." Estes plans to continue serving as CEO of the company he founded into the foreseeable future.
3. Martina King, CEO of FeatureSpace
Chief executive officer of Featurespace, Martina King joined the company in 2012. She has since played a pivotal role in the company, growing it into a multi-award winning fraud and risk technology provider. Inspired by founders Professor Bill Fitzgerald of the University of Cambridge and his Ph.D. student, Dave Excell, King has sought out to make the business as commercially successful as they were academically. Under her leadership, the London-based company has gone from strength to strength. With over 200 team members across it's Cambridge, London, and US offices, FeatureSpace creates new opportunities for specialists in data science, machine learning, and fraud prevention.
Regarded as one of the most influential women in payments, King is an outspoken force in the tech industry's gender disparity problem. "My experience is that, like many organizations, some men are hesitant to embrace and effect change." As the former managing director of augmented reality company, Aurasma, King has over 30 years of experience in media technology. This includes stints at Yahoo! Europe and Capital Radio.
4. Wayne Johnson, CEO of Encompass
In 2012, Wayne Johnson co-founded Encompass, based on the belief that the best decisions are made by people when they look at the "full picture." Founded in 2011 by Roger Carson and Johnson, the SaaS business automates major financial and professional service firms around the world while fighting global financial crime. In his role as chief executive officer, Johnson has led the conception of the firm's Know Your Customer (KYC) automation software while taking care of day-to-day operational management, fiduciary controls, HR as well as overseeing product development.
He's also led the international expansion of Encompass, including its launch in the UK in 2015 and Singapore in 2018. It received recognition as one of the UK's most influential RegTech firms.
Johnson founded his first company while studying computer science at the University of Sydney. He followed this with a stint in commercial IT management. Later, as the CEO and founder of Software Associates at the age of 24, he led the company's successful exit to a Hong Kong-listed company. He also served as the vice president of eHealthcare.
5. Tom Walsh, CEO of RDC
In 2018, Tom Walsh joined Regulatory DataCorp (RDC), the global leader in compliance screening as its new chief executive officer. The smarter screening company is renowned for its prevention of criminal infiltration of the world’s financial systems by delivering automated intelligence. RDC currently supports more than 35,000 compliance professionals across 100 countries. Since his appointment, Walsh has helped ensure that these clients have the right tools to remain competitive, address the rapid evolution of technology while providing friendly experiences to their customers.
Walsh has over 25 years of experience with enterprise software, as well as tax and land registry technology. His expansive areas of expertise, which include strategic product planning and development, market expansion, and customer engagement, make him an innovative thought leader with an edge.
Prior to RDC, he was the chief executive officer of Kaufman Hall Software, leading the rapid expansion of Kaufman Hall’s Enterprise Performance Management (EPM) financial suite of solutions across multiple industry verticals. He also spent over 20 years at Thomas Reuters Tax & Accounting in varying roles, including managing director & SVP government. He holds a Bachelor’s in Accounting from the University of Wyoming.
6. Jennifer Kloke, CTO of Ayasdi
Co-founder and chief technology officer of Ayasadi, Jennifer Kloke has been with the company since its inception in 2008. The enterprise-grade artificial intelligence platform has been vital in the protection of the banking industry from financial crime— and Kloke is at the heart of it all. Commended as a central force in the company's "rapid growth," Kloke has led the company to automate and expand insights with data.
Today, she leads the Symphony AyasdiAI data science subsidiary for government services and the algorithmic faction of the engineering team. Most recently, Kloke led the product and innovation team to build and launch a cloud-based automated data analysis application. She's utilized her experience managing teams of data scientists, engineers, researchers, and product managers, all while energizing employees in the vision of the company
Before Ayasdi, Kloke was at Stanford earning her Ph.D. in mathematics. This is where she met her co-founders, Gurjeet Singh, Gunnar Carlsson, and Harlan Sexton. She received her undergraduate degree in mathematics from Texas A&M University.
7. Sebastian Ceria, CEO of Axioma
Sebastian Ceria founded New York-based company Axioma in 1998. Starting as a consulting firm in mathematic modeling by 2001 the business began selling portfolio optimization software. In 2006 it entered the risk systems business. By 2013, the company's Axioma Risk asset was being lauded as a "quantum leap forward," combining everything into one platform for the first time. After leading Axioma as its CEO for 21 years, Ceria was placed into a new role following Qontigo's acquisition of the company in 2019. Today he serves as chief executive officer of Qontigo.
Prior to this, he was an Associate Professor of Decision, Risk, and Operations at Columbia Business School. His extensive work in optimization and its application to portfolio management earned him the Career Award for Operations Research from the National Science Foundation. Amongst his accolades, he's also authored a slew of articles in both academic and trade publications. Ceria has a Ph.D. in Operations Research from Carnegie Mellon University's Tepper School of Business, as well as a degree in Applied Math from the University of Buenos Aires in Argentina.
8. Michael Reitblat, CEO of Forter
As chief executive officer and co-founder of Forter, Michael Reitblat ensures that billions of dollars of ecommerce transactions happen safely and securely. He has been building Forter from the past seven years and has done so successfully, winning major clients such as Priceline, Away, fiverr, Nordstrom, MattressFIRM, TGIFridays and many others. In total, the company’s technology protects over 600 million shoppers processing over $150 billion in online transactions.
Founded in 2013 Forter was built by software engineers with deep experience, formerly with Fraud Sciences that was acquired by PayPal in 2008. Notably, the founders started their careers serving in the Israeli Army’s Intelligence Unit. Reitblat got his start in computer science at The Open University of Israel. From there he went on to study at Tel Aviv University. He began his career in 2001 with the Israeli Intelligence Corps – Cyber Command where he was part of two task forces that each received the highest Israeli National Security Award.
9. Ajit Tharaken, CEO of Opus
Ajit Tharaken started 2020 with a bang, following an announcement that he was appointed the role of chief executive officer at Opus. The California-based leading provider of SaaS-based compliance solutions was created through a $500 million partnership between GTCR, a leading private equity firm and Doug Bergeron, former CEO of VeriFone. Today, the world’s most respected global corporations rely on Opus to free their business from the complexity and uncertainty of managing customer, vendor, and third-party risks.
Tharaken brings over 20 years of experience building enterprise software businesses.
Prior to this, he was a senior director at Pegasystems, where he was responsible for building Pega’s Client Lifecycle Management and KYC business with a focus on sales, marketing, product, and partnerships. Previously, he managed a role at Alacra, which was later acquired by Opus where he was central to the product development of Alacra Book and the Alacra Compliance Enterprise applications. He served on the Alacra Senior Management Team and then after the acquisition by Opus he reported to the CEO as SVP, operations working on strategic initiatives with a strong customer focus.
Tharaken holds a Master’s degree in Computer Science from Columbia University.
10. Simone Maini, COO of Elliptic
Crypto-crime prevention agency Elliptic is in excellent hands with COO Simone Maini. Overseeing operations, finance, marketing, and sales, the Cambridge graduate has been an integral force in guiding the organization from a humble start-up to a world leader in preventing and detecting illegal activity on bitcoin and ethereum blockchains. Founded in London in 2013, the company has since established offices in New York City, Washington D.C., and Japan.
Maini is notably a strong advocate for women in tech. Understanding that confidence is critical in such a cutthroat industry, she encourages those who feel apprehensive to "just go for it." While there are challenges for women to progress, Maini and many others represent the dawning of a new era. It isn't just companies looking to rectify this, but women are also beginning to step up to the plate.
Prior to Elliptic, Simone was the senior director of product strategy at Kroll, a leading global provider of risk solutions. Before her time at Kroll, she worked at Deutsche Bank in London and New York as a member of the Corporate Finance COO team.
11. Robert Prigge, CEO of Jumio
Since joining Palo Alto-based firm Jumio, the leading AI-powered trusted identity SaaS provider, Robert Prigge has experienced nothing but success. Beginning as their chief revenue officer in 2016, he has since been promoted to president and was named the company's chief executive officer in 2019. This is by and large due to his deep experience in the cybersecurity and digital identity space. With 20 years of experience, including working in sales, business development, and marketing management, Prigge is a definite leader. A seasoned and strategic master, he describes himself as a "first-in last-out execution-obsessed" executive with an impressive record of success.
Prior to Jumio, Prigge held various C-level and senior executive roles at high-tech companies, including IBM, Secure Computing, Sterling Commerce, Infrascale, and Spruce Finance. He's also led three companies to successful M&A exits and has extensive global experience in building dynamic teams and sustainable operations.
Prigge started college at the tender age of 16 and earned a Bachelor's degree in Materials Science And Engineering from The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Most recently, he completed a diploma in AI and Machine Learning at MIT.
12. Husayn Kassai, CEO and Co-Founder of Onfido
Husayn Kassai is the CEO and co-founder of Onfido, a company determined to solve the personal identity security problem. At a young age he migrated from Iran to the UK and watched his parents struggle to access basic things, like a bank account due to issues with identity documents. Later, he was determined to create a solution for people just like his parents. It was while studying at Oxford, during his run at the Entrepreneurs Society that he met Eamon Jubbawy and Ruhul Amin. Together they all discussed the inefficiencies of identity verification and decided to make a change. In 2012 they founded Onfido.
Today the software company offers services that automate the verification process using photo-based identity documents, selfies, and artificial intelligence algorithms. The firm has now grown into a team of 250 with offices in London, San Francisco, New York, Lisbon, Paris, New Delhi, and Singapore. Onfido has received over $100 million in investment and works with over 1,500 companies worldwide.
Kassai sits on the Advisory Committee of Oxford Seed Fund and the All-Party Parliamentary Group on AI. He completed his Bachelor's in Economics and Management in 2012 at Oxford University.
13. Olivier Portenseigne, MD and Chief Commercial Officer of Fundsquare
In 2013 Fundsquare was set up by the Luxembourg Stock Exchange to facilitate the relationship between investors and funds. Based on blockchain, Fundsquare is an unparalleled international market infrastructure that offers services to support and standardize cross-border allocation of investment funds. Olivier Portenseigne has been at the company since its inception serving as the firm’s chief commercial officer and managing director.
He currently leads the Fund’s DLT initiative, which aims to deliver a market infrastructure based on blockchain to facilitate fund distribution operational activities. Portenseigne plays a vital role in overseeing business development and product management of the company. Today, Fundsquare has strategic partnerships with SWIFT and Altus. As partners, they deliver valuable expertise in communication and operational models. Both power Fundsquare for its order management services.
Prior to Fundsquare, he held senior management roles at RBC Investor & Treasury Services. There he was responsible for the setup and development of the distribution support platform, head of shareholder services in Luxembourg, and finally, global head of product management for shareholder services and distribution support. Portenseigne holds a Master’s degree from the Université de Metz in France.
14. Amy Kadomatsu, President of ComplySci
Amy Kadomatsu joined ComplySci as the chief operating officer in 2018 and was named president later in 2019. Responsible for ensuring customer success and data operations teams as well as leading the company's innovation initiatives, she's utilized her substantial fintech experience and knowledge to excel in her role.
Prior to joining ComplySci, she founded Instabot, a platform allowing marketers to engage and convert users through conversational chatbots. Previously she was the president of ROKO labs, the managing director at S&P Global, and chief product officer at TheMarkets.com, an association of the largest financial services firms including Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley and Citi, which was acquired by S&P Capital IQ for $300M.
Kadomatsu is also is an angel investor with HBS NY Angels, an advisor to start-ups and serves as a co-board chair for MOUSE, a national nonprofit bringing coding curriculum and STEM programs to underserved youth. Since 2006, Amy has sponsored a scholarship for a worthy, rising college student who excels in a Japanese cultural activity in honor of her dance teacher. She's a graduate of Harvard University and has an MBA from Harvard Business School.
15. Joanna Davies, CEO of Traiana
Following a successful stint as a managing director at Traiana, Joanna Davies was appointed to be the market infrastructure technology provider's CEO in 2019. In this role, she oversees the company's regulatory reporting services. Founded in 2000, the New York-based company offers pre-trade risk monitoring and automates post-trade processing for listed and OTC trading. Traiana works primarily with global banks, broker/dealers, buy-side firms, and trading platforms. It is part of NEX Optimisation, a business line within NEX Group, which offers a portfolio of cloud-hosted services across the transaction lifecycle.
With just over 20 years of experience in transaction reporting, managing risk, and consulting, Davies is a fintech tour de force. Along with her role at Traiana, the fintech leader also maintains a position as the chief executive officer of NEX Regulatory reporting. Prior to this, she was a regulatory reform consultant and the European head of client relationship management at UBS investment bank, as well as a consultant at Wise Investments.
16. Craig Costigan, CEO of NICE Actimize
Craig Costigan joined NICE Actimize as its chief executive officer in 2018. Responsible for the division’s market strategy and vision while leading all facets of the organization, including sales, product, R&D, international services, and marketing, Costigan brings an incomparable passion to his role. He is central to the development of innovative solutions that address the company’s most pressing challenges in regulatory compliance for financial crime as well as in customer risk and life-cycle management.
“Front and center to me each day is being focused on teamwork and collaboration to produce value and innovative solutions for our clients, protecting their business, and accelerating growth strategies globally.”
Prior to this, Costigan worked at FIS as President of Capital Markets & Credit, a $1.1 billion segment at FIS. From his previous roles at SunGard K-Tek International, Costigan can bring rich knowledge and expertise to his position at NICE, helping the company to reach new heights. He holds a Bachelor’s in Economics from Northeastern University.
17. Simon Paris, CEO of Finastra
Simon Paris joined Finastra as president in 2015, was appointed deputy chief executive officer in 2017, and became the chief executive officer in June 2018. In his current role, Paris takes responsibility for the London-based fintech company’s strategic direction and growth. Utilizing his 20 years of experience, he has steered the company towards an open platform vision and industry-wide collaboration with the hopes of inspiring the next generation of financial services.
A firm believer in “doing well by doing good,” Paris chairs the World Trade Board and is excited about the future of technology, how it can drive financial inclusion and ultimately improve people’s lives. A trusted fintech thought leader, he is a celebrated speaker at events like the annual World Trade Symposium, Paris Fintech Forum, and The Milken Asia Summit.
Prior to Finstra, Paris was president of the industry cloud at SAP, VP of EMEA global accounts at Infor Global Solutions, and a senior consultant with McKinsey & Company. He holds a degree in Business Administration from the INSEAD Business School in France and a Bachelor’s degree in Business & European languages from the European Business School.
18. Stephen Ritter CTO of Mitek
Stephen Ritter is the chief technology officer of Mitek, a global leader in mobile capture and identity verification software solutions. In this role, Ritter is responsible for driving the technological development of Mitek’s product portfolio, as well as overseeing Mitek Labs, the company’s computer vision and scientific team.
Combining 25 years of experience in building teams for software creation and extensive knowledge in information security, cloud-based software, and machine learning, Ritter is central to the company’s most cutting-edge solutions. An expert in applying machine learning to today’s most challenging business problems, his expertise spans cybersecurity, facial analytics, and identity.
Prior to joining Mitek, Ritter was SVP Engineering and Research for Emotient, which was acquired by Apple. Ritter has held senior leadership roles in product development, architectural implementation, and engineering operations. He served as Vice President of Engineering at Websense and Sr. Director of Engineering at McAfee. Stephen Ritter holds a BS in Cognitive Science from the University of California, San Diego. He has co-authored eight patents.
19. Nuno Sebastiao, CEO, Co-Founder, and Chairman of Feedzai
Co-founder, chairman, and chief executive officer, Nuno Sebastiao founded FeedZai with Pedro Bizarro and Paulo Marques in 2011. A market leader in fighting fraud with artificial intelligence, FeedZai has one of the most advanced management platforms powered by machine learning and data.
As the driving force of Feedzai's global growth, Sebastiao has brought almost 20 years of experience in infrastructure and services as well as corporate management skills to the company. Under his leadership, the fintech pioneer has raised more than $82 million in venture funding, while continuing to keep commerce safe for many of the leading banks, retailers, and payment processors around the globe.
Prior to this, he was a senior advisor at Oak HC/FT, a director at ANJE the young entrepreneur association, a product manager at the European Space Agency, a consultant at critical software, and a consultant at Deloitte. In 2005, he was the founder and CEO of Oristeba, a company pioneering software validation for the Aerospace Industry. He has shared stages with tech leaders like Stephen Hawking and Steve Wozniak. Nuno has an MBA from the London Business School.
20. David Wilson, Managing Director and CEO of Accuity Fircosoft
After serving as Accuity's chief operating officer for 18 months, David Wilson was named the firm's new managing director and CEO in 2019. Overseeing financial crime compliance, payments, and Know Your Customer (KYC) solutions, Accuity provides deep expertise and industry-leading data-enabled solutions from the Fircosoft, Bankers Almanac, and NRS brands. Its dedication to technology innovation has led to breakthroughs in financial crime compliance while creating more efficient global payments. Part of RELX Group, a global provider of information and analytics for professionals and business customers across industries, Accuity has been delivering solutions to banks and businesses worldwide for 180 years.
Wilson is responsible for the performance and strategic vision of Accuity using unique data, technology, and analytics to solve business challenges for compliance and payment professionals by utilizing over 20 years of experience.
Prior to this, Wilson headed up roles as the publisher, global publishing director, and the managing director, eventually becoming the CEO of Proagrica, the global Agriculture division of Reed Business Information. There he transformed the business from a publishing operation to a global portfolio offering technology, software, data, and analytics solutions.
21. Michael Nicastro, CEO of Continuity Control
Mike Nicastro is the chief executive officer and director of New Haven, Connecticut-based company Continuity, a leading provider of automated compliance management technology for financial institutions and mortgage lenders. In this position, Nicastro is responsible for the company's strategic direction as well as the executive oversight of sales and operations. He's a seasoned technology, sales, and marketing executive with over 40 years of experience in the fintech industry.
A veteran of banking and FinTech, Nicastro maintains this position while also being the owner and principal of Coppermine Advisors, a business advisory firm offering strategic plan development, capital acquisition, and succession planning. Prior to this, he held a position as senior vice president and CMO of Open Solutions Inc., a company that he helped launch in 1994. He was also responsible for its entire product strategy overseeing every phase of the company's growth. This includes over 20 acquisitions, a 2003 IPO, and a private equity sale in 2007 valued at $1.4 billion.
Nicastro holds a Bachelor's in Marketing from the Central Connecticut State University as well as his JD in Law from the Western New England University School of Law.
22. Charles Delingpole, CEO and Founder of ComplyAdvantage
Charles Delingpole founded ComplyAdvantage in 2014 after discovering that tools used to prevent financial crime were clunky, poor at providing relevant alerts, and challenging to integrate. Today, the technology company focuses on preventing financial crime and subsequently, terrorism and human trafficking work with over 350 firms in 45 countries. He has created an algorithmic approach to data gathering and an API-based system for compliance that allows them to work with fintech, banks or even non-financial companies. ComplyAdvantage has offices in London, New York, Singapore, and Cluj.
Prior to this, Delingpole helped build MarketFinance into a fintech powerhouse alongside Anil Stocker. It was the first fintech to offer multiple lending products in a single integrated platform. He was also previously an associate at J.P. Morgan Cazenove. Delingpole set up his first company, The Student Room Group when he was just 16. It is now the world’s largest student discussion forum. He holds a Master’s in Politics from Trinity College Cambridge and a Master’s in Management, Strategy, and Finance from the LSE.
23. Juan Diego Martin, COO of Fonetic
Juan Diego Martin joined Fonetic in 2009, where he's served as delivery director, sales director, general manager, and most recently as the chief operating officer and chief marketing officer.
A leading provider in conversational voice bots, chatbots, and natural language processing (NLP), Fonetic is also recognized for its development of technology solutions and software for capital markets, using voice analysis and artificial intelligence (AI). Utilizing his previous experience as the chief operating officer at Infospeech, Martin advises Fonetic in innovation and growth. With over 12 years of experience leading cutting-edge voice and language-related technology systems in France and Spain, Martin has broad experience in managing service companies, identifying technological applications to resolve clients' business challenges.
Prior to this, he was the development engineer at the research and development center of Inovatel. His other roles sit in stark contrast to his position today. He was previously the casting director for Nuevos Cómicos at Paramount Comedy and a dialog designer for Nuance. Martin graduated from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) with a degree in Electrical Engineering.
24. Andrew Simpson, COO of Alessa
As the chief operating officer at Canada-based fintech giant, CaseWare RCM, Andrew Simpson oversees the company’s leading product. Alessa is used around the world by banks, insurance companies, and others to fight money laundering. With more than 20 years of experience, Simpson has not only built companies in the security and information systems audit spaces but has brought his expansive knowledge to CaseWare. The company’s renowned continuous monitoring framework is significantly based on Simpson’s experience in the field.
Previously Andrew held the role of CEO and founded SymSure before its acquisition by CaseWare IDEA Inc. He’s also the chairman and owner of Symptai Consulting. Simpson is a respected thought leader across many fields, including data analytics, interrogation, forensics, anti-money laundering, and others. Before starting Symsure Consulting, Simpson worked for Ernst & Young as an IT Audit and Security Specialist following the collapse of the financial sector in Jamaica during the 90s. He has an MBA in Banking and Finance from the University of Wales and Manchester Business School and a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science and Mathematics from the University of the West Indies.
25. Arbela Takhsh, COO of Ascent
In 2019, innovative regulatory compliance and intelligence solutions provider, Ascent announced that Arbela Takhsh was the company's new chief operating officer. Since its inception in 2015 Ascent has flourished, closing a $6 million Series A funding round in 2018 and a $19.3 million Series B funding round in 2019. The company now boasts over 35 employees who are led by an executive team and board of directors with extensive experience and knowledge.
Takhsh has held various engineering and operational leadership roles at Motorola, Google, Comcast, with over 20 years of experience leading business operations and product development for global organizations. Prior to joining Ascent, she held a role as Senior Vice President of Operations Excellence, Quality, and Data Analytics & Business Intelligence at Gogo. She possesses in-depth knowledge across technology operations, highly regulated industries, and advanced data science solutions. Throughout her career, Takhsh has guided organizations to maximize their impact through thoughtful and inclusive leadership, customer obsession, and a sharp focus on execution and business results.
Takhsh earned her undergraduate degree in Computer Science from Temple University and her MBA from Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.